Top Ten Most Popular Brainimmune Articles

op Ten Most Popular Brainimmune articles

As we celebrate the 10th Year Anniversary of BrainImmune  – come along with us to discover what’s hot and which topics generated the most attention from BrainImmune readers.

Here’s a look at our top ten most popular articles so far, published within the last 12 months.

Our #1 most popular article is Walter Cannon: Homeostasis, the Fight-or-Flight Response, the Sympathoadrenal System, and the Wisdom of the Body. This article is authored by David S. Goldstein, M.D., Ph.D., a Senior Investigator at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Walter Cannon BrainImmuneWalter Bradford Cannon, a former Chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School (1906-1942), developed the concepts of ‘homeostasis’ (stability of the inner world); the ‘Fight or Flight Response’, and The ‘Sympathoadrenal System’. In 1932, Cannon published The Wisdom of the Body, where he popularized the new term of the dynamic equilibrium/steady state of the internal milieu or homeostasis.

Dr. Goldstein’s article outlines the nature of these concepts and how these three theories were developed in the first half of the 20th century. Noteworthy, as per David Goldstein, Cannon’s notion of a unitary sympathoadrenal system endures to this day. Many situations, however, entail differential regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenomedullary hormonal system.

Our 2nd most popular article is the short overview about The Discovery of Adrenaline, written by professors Ashley Grossman and David Jessop, in the UK. Adrenaline (epinephrine) was the first hormone to be isolated from tissue, and the first intercellular messenger to be chemically identified and synthesized.

The first scientifically rigorous demonstration of the pressor effects of suprarenal extract was by George Oliver and Edward Schafer in 1894 at University College London. Extracts of suprarenal glands were obtained by Oliver, a rural medical practitioner, and professor Schafer from calves, sheep, guinea-pigs, cats, dogs and humans. These tissues were tested on the heart rates in dogs, cats and rabbits and “one consistent variable was an extremely potent effect of medullary (but not cortical) extract on heart rate and blood pressure consequent to arteriole contraction”.

This laid the platform for purification of the active substance which was first achieved by John Abel in 1899 at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and independently by the Japanese scientist Jokichi Takamine in New York City.

As professors Ashley Grossman and David Jessop wrote in this historical perspective “we should give due credit to our forebears whose acumen and diligence has allowed us to ‘stand on the shoulders of giants’…”.

Coming in at #3, not surprisingly, is The Discovery of Interferon, the First Cytokine, by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann in 1957, written by professor Derek Burke, in the UK.

One reason is that the topic, or factual search term “the discovery of interferon”, linked and related to the above-mentioned BrainImmune article – over the last 5-6 years – always shows up on the first page of a Google search!

  • Of note, another topic and search term,  “the discovery of adrenaline”, this time related to the above-mentioned BrainImmune article The Discovery of Adrenaline (#2), has also always been on the first page of Google.

The other reason is that the articles The Discovery of Interferon, the First Cytokine, by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann in 1957 (#3), as well as the article Hans Selye and the Birth of the Stress Concept (see below, #9) are really unique in that the discovery of interferon and the Hans Selye stress concept, are written by Profs. Derek Burke and Istvan Berczi, two investigators who had the chance to work along Alick Isaacs and Hans Selye, respectively.

The top 10 list also includes Thyroid Hormone Modulation of Immune Responses in Physiologic And Stressful Conditions. As discussed by this article’s authors: “interactions between thyroid hormones and the immune system are important to elicit appropriate immune responses, especially when the immune system is challenged as in stressful conditions”.

Stress Induced Th2 Shift ThyroidIn fact, we have several articles related to this issue. For example, at BrainImmune we discuss the early studies from 1808, when Caleb Parry described the first patient “Elizabeth S”, who had developed hyperthyroidism following acute stress. Also, another article that further discusses the effects of stress is the relationship between the clinical onset of Graves’ hyperthyroidism and major stress in the preceding 2-3 months.

Or, Agathocles Tsatsoulis and Christina Limniati suggesting a unifying hypothesis for the role of stress, where “the stress hormones may steer the balance toward a Th2 phenotype. Effector Th2 cells and type 2 cytokines will then induce antigen-specific B lymphocytes to produce anti-TSHr antibodies……Under these circumstances, the clinical outcome will be GD” (Graves’ disease).

Anyhow, here are the BrainImmune top ten most popular articles published within the last 12 months:

  1. Walter Cannon: Homeostasis, the Fight-or-Flight Response, the Sympathoadrenal System, and the Wisdom of the Body
    By David Goldstein
  2. The Discovery of Adrenaline
    By Ashley Grossman and David Jessop
  3. The Discovery of Interferon, the First Cytokine, by Alick Isaacs and Jean Lindenmann in 1957
    By Derek Burke
  4. The Cross-talk between the Dopaminergic System and Innate Immunity: An Evolving Concept
    By Monica Pinoli
  5. The Brain Glymphatic System: From a Good Night’s Sleep to the Onset of Dementia
    By Maria Teresa Ferretti and Maria Florencia Iulita
  6. Claude Bernard, the Father of Modern Physiology and Experimental Medicine
    By Vincent Geenen
  7. Thyroid Hormone Modulation of Immune Responses in Physiologic and Stressful Conditions: Implications for Thyroid Diseases
    By Graciela Cremaschi and Ana Maria Genaro
  8. Understanding the Role of Inflammation in Fatigue Requires Multidimensional Assessments
    By Julie Lasselin, Bianka Karshikoff and Tina Sundelin
  9. Hans Selye and the Birth of the Stress Concept
    By Istvan Berczi
  10. Endogenous Catecholamines in Immune Cells: Discovery, Functions And Clinical Potential as Therapeutic Targets
    By Marco Cosentino, Natasa Kustrimovic and Franca Marino

Ilia Elenkov, MD, PhD
Editor, BrainImmune