What’s Hot

What’s hot covering significant new developments in neuroendocrine-immunology, neuroscience and immunology

The European Commission Approves Remdesivir for the Treatment of Severe Cases of COVID-19

The European Commission Approves Remdesivir for the Treatment of Severe Cases of COVID-19

Following the recommendation of the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the European Commission has authorized on Friday the use of remdesivir to treat severe cases of COVID-19. Under this authorization, Veklury® (remdesivir) is indicated for the treatment of COVID-19 in adults and adolescents (aged 12 years and older and weighing at least 40 kg), with pneumonia […]

First Evidence that the Antiviral Remdesivir Shows Efficacy in an Animal Model (Rhesus Macaques) of COVID-19

First Evidence that the Antiviral Remdesivir Shows Efficacy in an Animal Model (Rhesus Macaques) of COVID-19

As reported by Brandi Williamson et al. in bioRxiv, remdesivir is the first antiviral treatment with proven efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in an animal model of COVID-19. This study involving four laboratories from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA, indicates […]

Favipiravir (Avigan) Shows Therapeutic Efficacy in Treating Coronavirus in Two Clinical Trials Conducted in China

Favipiravir (Avigan) Shows Therapeutic Efficacy in Treating Coronavirus in Two Clinical Trials Conducted in China

Two recently conducted clinical trials in China involving 340 patients indicate that the Japanese-developed flu drug, Favipiravir, shows therapeutic efficacy in treating COVID-19 infection. The Japanese Fujifilm Toyama Chemical Co. developed Avigan in 2014 and has licensed the patent for Favipiravir to the Chinese company Zhejiang Hisun Pharmaceutical. Favipiravir (6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that […]

Production of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory neuropeptides by specific gut microbiota genera: in silico evidence

Production of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory neuropeptides by specific gut microbiota genera: in silico evidence

Researches from Spain and Portugal showed, for the first time, the production of neuropeptides by gut microbiota with potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing body of evidence indicate the involvement of gut microbiota and the nervous system in the gut-brain axis and cross-talk. Various neuropeptides, such as substance P,neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal […]

Raloxifene and Two New Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) Inducing M2-Macrophage Shift and High IL-10 and IL-1Ra Production

Raloxifene and Two New Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) Inducing M2-Macrophage Shift and High IL-10 and IL-1Ra Production

A new study published in the journal Inflammation indicates that in myeloid cells raloxifene and two new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are able to induce a shift to M2-macrophage anti-inflammatory phenotype, characterized by high production of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Estrogens exert pleiotropic immuno-modulatory and immuno-regulatory effects, contributing to the sexual […]

Norepinephrine through β2-adrenoceptor activation down-regulates pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis

Norepinephrine through β2-adrenoceptor activation down-regulates pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis

What’s Hot A recent study in Medical Science Monitor indicates that norepinephrine (noradrenaline), the major sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter, through stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors (AR) is able to suppress the highly pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cells and exert anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of arthritis. In 1986 Mosman et al. discovered the Th1 (mostly […]

First Evidence that Catecholamines Inhibit IL-27 Production by Antigen Presenting Cells

First Evidence that Catecholamines Inhibit IL-27 Production by Antigen Presenting Cells

A recent J. Immunology study provides perhaps the first evidence that catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine suppress the production of interleukin-27 (IL-27) via the activation of β2-adrenoceptors, and by mechanisms involving IL-10 and the JNK signaling pathway. Homeostasis within the immune system is largely dependent on cytokines, the ‘hormones’ of the immune system that […]

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

A recent study published in the Brain, Behavior, and Immunity journal indicates, for the first time, that stimulation of vagal afferents or specific brain areas can modulate joint inflammation. This new central pathway involves sympathetic nervous system activation and local stimulation of synovial β-adrenoceptors. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a well-known procedure that limits inflammation and […]

Antibiotics through Effects on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Inflammatory Monocytes May Reshape Brain Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Antibiotics through Effects on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Inflammatory Monocytes May Reshape Brain Hippocampal Neurogenesis

A new Cell Reports study indicates that ‘inflammatory’ monocytes may represent the missing ‘pathogenic link’ between the antibiotics’ effects on gut microbiota, and the subsequent changes in the brain hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Recent research suggests that antibiotics may exert some of their unsolicited side effects through effects on the gut-brain axis. Soon after birth, […]

Gut and Gingival Bacteria: Game Changers or Innocent Bystanders in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Gut and Gingival Bacteria: Game Changers or Innocent Bystanders in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Several publications in the last 2-3 years brought more interest in the link between gut and gingival bacteria or microbiota, and human health and diseases, and particularly their possible game changer role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The human gastrointestinal tract comprises approximately 1014 bacterial microbes and amounts to a biomass of approximately 2 […]

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