What’s Hot

What’s hot covering significant new developments in neuroendocrine-immunology, neuroscience and immunology

Production of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory neuropeptides by specific gut microbiota genera: in silico evidence

Production of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory neuropeptides by specific gut microbiota genera: in silico evidence

Researches from Spain and Portugal showed, for the first time, the production of neuropeptides by gut microbiota with potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing body of evidence indicate the involvement of gut microbiota and the nervous system in the gut-brain axis and cross-talk. Various neuropeptides, such as substance P,neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal […]

Raloxifene and Two New Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) Inducing M2-Macrophage Shift and High IL-10 and IL-1Ra Production

Raloxifene and Two New Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) Inducing M2-Macrophage Shift and High IL-10 and IL-1Ra Production

A new study published in the journal Inflammation indicates that in myeloid cells raloxifene and two new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are able to induce a shift to M2-macrophage anti-inflammatory phenotype, characterized by high production of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Estrogens exert pleiotropic immuno-modulatory and immuno-regulatory effects, contributing to the sexual […]

Norepinephrine through β2-adrenoceptor activation down-regulates pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis

Norepinephrine through β2-adrenoceptor activation down-regulates pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis

What’s Hot A recent study in Medical Science Monitor indicates that norepinephrine (noradrenaline), the major sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter, through stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors (AR) is able to suppress the highly pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cells and exert anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of arthritis. In 1986 Mosman et al. discovered the Th1 (mostly […]

First Evidence that Catecholamines Inhibit IL-27 Production by Antigen Presenting Cells

First Evidence that Catecholamines Inhibit IL-27 Production by Antigen Presenting Cells

A recent J. Immunology study provides perhaps the first evidence that catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine suppress the production of interleukin-27 (IL-27) via the activation of β2-adrenoceptors, and by mechanisms involving IL-10 and the JNK signaling pathway. Homeostasis within the immune system is largely dependent on cytokines, the ‘hormones’ of the immune system that […]

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

A recent study published in the Brain, Behavior, and Immunity journal indicates, for the first time, that stimulation of vagal afferents or specific brain areas can modulate joint inflammation. This new central pathway involves sympathetic nervous system activation and local stimulation of synovial β-adrenoceptors. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a well-known procedure that limits inflammation and […]

Antibiotics through Effects on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Inflammatory Monocytes May Reshape Brain Hippocampal Neurogenesis

Antibiotics through Effects on the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Inflammatory Monocytes May Reshape Brain Hippocampal Neurogenesis

A new Cell Reports study indicates that ‘inflammatory’ monocytes may represent the missing ‘pathogenic link’ between the antibiotics’ effects on gut microbiota, and the subsequent changes in the brain hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Recent research suggests that antibiotics may exert some of their unsolicited side effects through effects on the gut-brain axis. Soon after birth, […]

Gut and Gingival Bacteria: Game Changers or Innocent Bystanders in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Gut and Gingival Bacteria: Game Changers or Innocent Bystanders in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Several publications in the last 2-3 years brought more interest in the link between gut and gingival bacteria or microbiota, and human health and diseases, and particularly their possible game changer role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The human gastrointestinal tract comprises approximately 1014 bacterial microbes and amounts to a biomass of approximately 2 […]

Activation of the Brain-Splenic Nerve Axis in Hypertension: The Cholinergic-Sympathetic-Immune System Connection

Activation of the Brain-Splenic Nerve Axis in Hypertension: The Cholinergic-Sympathetic-Immune System Connection

A recent Nature Communications study indicates that hypertension is linked to T cell activation and an egression of T-cells from the spleen, and that this process is dependent on a vagus-splenic nerve connection. Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary heart diseases and stroke. Despite various therapeutic approaches 10-15% of the general hypertensive population […]

Sympathetic Nerves via β2-adrenoceptor Signaling Generate Circadian Rhythms and Govern Lymphocyte Recirculation in Lymph Nodes

Sympathetic Nerves via β2-adrenoceptor Signaling Generate Circadian Rhythms and Govern Lymphocyte Recirculation in Lymph Nodes

A new study, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine (JEM), indicates that in mice, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, through β2-adrenergic receptors activation controls the circadian dynamics and traffic of lymphocytes through the lymph nodes (LNs). Both primary and secondary lymphoid organs are heavily innervated, mostly by the peripheral sympathetic nerves. Thus, locally […]

New Function of Microglia: Promotion of Filopodia and Hence Synaptogenesis during Early Brain Development

New Function of Microglia: Promotion of Filopodia and Hence Synaptogenesis during Early Brain Development

A recent study published in Nature Communications reveals that the brain microglia influences the developing brain through induction of filopodia creation, thus, shaping neuronal connectivity and synapses formation. Microglia are important components of the neuro-immune interactions in the brain. As the resident macrophage cells, the microglial cells provide the main immune defense in the central […]

Page 1 of 3123