Th1/Th2 balance

Early Childhood Farm Environment Exposure Inducing T Helper 1-Cytokine Profiles and Asthma Protection?

Early Childhood Farm Environment Exposure Inducing T Helper 1-Cytokine Profiles and Asthma Protection?

In a recent study by Heidi Kääriö et al., using samples from the Protection Against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) birth cohort, demonstrate that farm exposures (stables, hay barn, farm milk) at age 4.5 years is linked to amplified Th1-type cytokine production. The research group from Finland and Germany report that peripheral blood mononuclear cells […]

Activation of Beta2-Adrenoreceptors Drives T Helper Cell Priming In Favor of IL-17 Responses

Activation of Beta2-Adrenoreceptors Drives T Helper Cell Priming In Favor of IL-17 Responses

In a recent study published in the journal Cytokine, Michela Manni, Richard Granstein and Georges Maestroni, from the Center for Experimental Pathology, Locarno, Switzerland, provide new evidence suggesting that catecholamines, through activation of beta2-adrenoreceptors (ARs) on immune cells, may drive, in certain conditions, Th17 immune responses. The authors report that the beta2-AR agonist salbutamol is […]

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Evolving Concepts The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as well […]

Autonomic Nervous System Shift Linked to Infections following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Autonomic Nervous System Shift Linked to Infections following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

A report in the journal Stroke indicates that a sympathetic nervous system over-activity and predominance is associated with higher rate of infection following acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and the third leading cause of death in the Western world. Infections occur commonly following stroke and adversely influence outcome. Pulmonary […]

Developmental Changes in the Neuroendocrine/Stress-Immune Interactions: Immunosenescence and Infectious/Inflammatory Disease Risk in the Elderly

Developmental Changes in the Neuroendocrine/Stress-Immune Interactions: Immunosenescence and Infectious/Inflammatory Disease Risk in the Elderly

In a recent review, Kathi Heffner from the Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York outlines recent data suggesting that immunosenescence, endocrinosenescence and age-related dysregulation of stress response systems are closely intertwined. Immunosenescence refers to the dysfunction and gradual deterioration of the immune system associated with aging. This overall change in […]

Signaling Through Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor – a Critical Pathway in Allergic Inflammation

Signaling Through Neuropeptide Y1 Receptor – a Critical Pathway in Allergic Inflammation

In a new Immunology & Cell Biology study, Laurence Macia and colleagues from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, Australia, demonstrate that Neuropeptide Y (NPY) exacerbates allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in mice, via its Y1 receptor.  Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide discovered in 1982 by Kazuhiko Tatemoto, Mats Carlquist and Viktor Mutt. NPY signals […]

Stress May Restrain the Immunostimulatory Effects of Interleukin-12

Stress May Restrain the Immunostimulatory Effects of Interleukin-12

A new study published in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity suggests that chronic stress exposure can abolish the effects of immunostimulatory treatments such as the administration of interleukin (IL)-12, which is independent from the stress effects on baseline immune measures. Type 1 T-helper (Th)1 and proinflammatory cytokines are major activators of Th1-dependent cellular immunity, […]

Influence of the Sympathetic Nervous System on Regulatory T cells: Another Link in Neuro-Immune Interactions

Influence of the Sympathetic Nervous System on Regulatory T cells: Another Link in Neuro-Immune Interactions

Overview article Homeostatic control of the immune system is dependent on CD4, FoxP3+, NKT or antigen-specific CD4+ or CD8+ regulatory T cells. These regulatory T cells are essential to prevent or mitigate autoimmunity and the immune response to non-self antigens. Herein is an overview of our observations on the inhibition of the induction of splenic […]