sympathetic nervous system

Stress, Dyshomeostasis and COVID-19 Mortality: A Big Picture View

Stress, Dyshomeostasis and COVID-19 Mortality: A Big Picture View

Commentary Note that the information contained herein is NOT instructional for medical diagnosis or treatment, see the BrainImmune DISCLAIMER at the end of this article! The pandemic viral illness COVID-19 is especially life-threatening in the elderly and in people with any of a variety of underlying medical conditions. No conceptual framework has been offered as […]

β2-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Upregulation of IL-17 May Contribute to Pulmonary Immunopathology in COVID-19: Does Blockade of IL-17 and β-Adrenergic Effects Hold a Therapeutic Potential?

β2-Adrenoceptor-Mediated Upregulation of IL-17 May Contribute to Pulmonary Immunopathology in COVID-19: Does Blockade of IL-17 and β-Adrenergic Effects Hold a Therapeutic Potential?

Research Hypothesis Note that this is a research hypothesis – the information contained herein is NOT instructional for medical diagnosis or treatment, see the BrainImmune DISCLAIMER at the end of this article! It has been reported that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) can also function as a cytoplasmic viral pattern recognition receptor (PRR) by triggering […]

Sympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Brief Overview

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by chronic inflammation occurring locally within the synovial joints and systemically. Accumulating evidence supports an important role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of RA, both as a cause and consequence of inflammation. Acute sympathetic activation results in a shift from a T-helper (Th) 1 […]

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Evolving Concepts Fibromyalgia (FM) is a stress-related disorder that predominately affects women. FM’s outstanding clinical features are chronic widespread pain, paresthesias, allodynia, fatigue, sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment. Other FM associated symptoms relate to irritable bowel, temporo-mandibular dysfunction and interstitial cystitis [1]. FM pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Our group has proposed dysautonomia as an […]

Cytokines Driving Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in the Subfornical Organ: Implications for Heart Failure and Hypertension

Cytokines Driving Sympathetic Nervous System Activation in the Subfornical Organ: Implications for Heart Failure and Hypertension

A recent study published in Hypertension demonstrates that cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α acting at the level of the subfornical organ induce the expression of inflammatory and excitatory mediators that subsequently drive sympathetic nervous system activation. The subfornical organ (SFO), a highly vascularized structure is a circumventricular organ that lacks […]

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Evolving Concepts Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed in […]

Psychological Stress May Promote Inflammation through Expansion of Immature Proinflammatory Monocytes

Psychological Stress May Promote Inflammation through Expansion of Immature Proinflammatory Monocytes

A recent study by Nicole Powell et al. published in the October 8, 2013 issue of PNAS, suggests that stress hormones may contribute to pro-inflammation through selective expansion and/or recruitment of a specific subpopulation of immature, proinflammatory monocytes. In the 1970s and 1980s stress was often considered immunosuppressive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that psychological stress […]

Evidence that electroacupuncture affects immunity through a specific dopaminergic neuroendocrine pathway

Evidence that electroacupuncture affects immunity through a specific dopaminergic neuroendocrine pathway

A new study, published in the February 23, 2014 issue of Nature Medicine (Advance Online Publication) provides perhaps the first robust evidence that acupuncture’s effects are translated through specific neuroendocrine and immune pathways. The way acupuncture affects human physiologic processes, and particularly immune function and homeostasis, is not well understood. Acupuncture has always been considered […]

Autonomic Nerves May Contribute to Prostate Cancer Development

Autonomic Nerves May Contribute to Prostate Cancer Development

In the July 2013 issue of Science magazine, Claire Magnon et al. provide evidence that autonomic nerves contribute to prostate cancer development, where the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) via the activation of β2 and β3-adrenergic receptor pathway participate in the early phase of tumor development. On the other hand, the parasympathetic (cholinergic) nervous system plays […]

Beta Blockers Improve Survival in Ovarian Cancer Patients

Beta Blockers Improve Survival in Ovarian Cancer Patients

At a recent meeting of the American Society of Gynecologic Oncology in Los Angeles, CA., Anil Sood, MD, and colleagues from the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, reported that patients with advanced ovarian cancer had significantly better survival if they took beta blockers. In the past few years, more than a dozen studies have […]

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