rheumatoid arthritis

Sympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Brief Overview

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by chronic inflammation occurring locally within the synovial joints and systemically. Accumulating evidence supports an important role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of RA, both as a cause and consequence of inflammation. Acute sympathetic activation results in a shift from a T-helper (Th) 1 […]

Neuroendocrine Immune Implications in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Past and Present Unresolved Issues and Optimising Glucocorticoid Treatment

Neuroendocrine Immune Implications in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Past and Present Unresolved Issues and Optimising Glucocorticoid Treatment

Editorial Introduction and background The dramatic effects of cortisone and pituitary adrenocortical hormone therapy on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were discovered almost seven decades ago (1) and even longer for the significant disease amelioration during pregnancy as reported by Hench in 1938 (2). However, major questions persist about the underlying adrenocortical and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) […]

The Cross-talk between the Dopaminergic System and Innate Immunity: An Evolving Concept

The Cross-talk between the Dopaminergic System and Innate Immunity: An Evolving Concept

Evolving Concept Dopamine (DA) is a well-known neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). An increasing body of evidence, however, indicates that DA is also an important communication mediator at the neural-immune interface [1-3]. Most research and studies to date have put the emphasis on DA and it’s regulation of adaptive immunity. Comparatively little is […]

Norepinephrine through β2-adrenoceptor activation down-regulates pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis

Norepinephrine through β2-adrenoceptor activation down-regulates pro-inflammatory pathogenic Th17 cells in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis

What’s Hot A recent study in Medical Science Monitor indicates that norepinephrine (noradrenaline), the major sympathetic nervous system neurotransmitter, through stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors (AR) is able to suppress the highly pathogenic T helper 17 (Th17) cells and exert anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of arthritis. In 1986 Mosman et al. discovered the Th1 (mostly […]

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

Afferent Vagus Nerve Stimulation Activates Brain Locus Coeruleus and Improves Experimental Joint Inflammation

A recent study published in the Brain, Behavior, and Immunity journal indicates, for the first time, that stimulation of vagal afferents or specific brain areas can modulate joint inflammation. This new central pathway involves sympathetic nervous system activation and local stimulation of synovial β-adrenoceptors. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a well-known procedure that limits inflammation and […]

Gut and Gingival Bacteria: Game Changers or Innocent Bystanders in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Gut and Gingival Bacteria: Game Changers or Innocent Bystanders in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Several publications in the last 2-3 years brought more interest in the link between gut and gingival bacteria or microbiota, and human health and diseases, and particularly their possible game changer role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The human gastrointestinal tract comprises approximately 1014 bacterial microbes and amounts to a biomass of approximately 2 […]

New Evidence Suggests Targeting Neuroinflammation May Be One Key to Slowing Alzheimer’s Disease

Commentary on the study by Richard Chou et al. CNS Drugs, 2016 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print] Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Risk of Alzheimer’sDisease: A Nested Case-Control Analysis Compelling new data published online in the journal CNS Drugs documents a substantial and significant decreased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in individuals with […]

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Pathogenic Th17 Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Inhibits Pathogenic Th17 Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

A study published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology indicates that in blood from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) shifts the activity of T cells towards a more T regulatory cell phenotype, and reduces the pathogenic profile of T helper (Th)17 cells. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is well-known for its immunoregulatory […]

Vitamin D Deficiency May Contribute to the Reduction of Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation in Arthritis

Vitamin D Deficiency May Contribute to the Reduction of Sympathetic and Sensory Innervation in Arthritis

A new study published in Neuroscience demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency in experimental animals is related to sensory and sympathetic denervation and reduced neurotrophin levels in the synovium. Several studies have associated vitamin D levels with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) development in humans. Thus, low vitamin D levels are documented in patients with active RA. Also […]

Therapeutic Potential of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Therapeutic Potential of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

According to van Maanen et al., and their recent publication in PLoS One, two new experimental compounds affecting the acetylcholine-receptor system are able to delay collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, showing the therapeutic potential of chemicals targeting the α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). Previous research revealed that the efferent vagus nerve may decrease […]

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