pain

Neural Suppression Neutralizes Flesh-Eating Streptococcal Bacterial Infection

Neural Suppression Neutralizes Flesh-Eating Streptococcal Bacterial Infection

In a recent study published in the journal Cell, Pinho-Ribeiro et al. report that a specific type of bacteria (S. pyogenes), involved in necrotizing fasciitis, increases its infectivity and inhibits tissue immune responses by stimulating local pain neurons. This mechanism suggests that local block of neural activity can be used to increase bacteria clearance and […]

Pain and Neuroimmune Interactions

Pain and Neuroimmune Interactions is published by Springer and edited by Nayef E. Saade, Nayef E. Saadé, Suhayl J. Jabbur and A. Vania Apkarian. Pain is a product of various pathways and mechanisms within the nervous system in response to inflammation or trauma. Over 1.5 billion people suffer from chronic pain with 3-4.5% of the […]

Microglia: gatekeepers for neuropathic pain

Microglia: gatekeepers for neuropathic pain

Evolving Concepts Introduction Where acute pain protects an individual from further damage, chronic pain serves no adaptive purpose. Approximately 1 in 5 people suffer from chronic pain, which exacts a substantial toll on the both the individual and on national economies [1–3]. Chronic pain can arise due to unresolved inflammation (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), damage to […]

An Evolving Concept: The Pathologic Level of Brain TNF is a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain Treatment

An Evolving Concept: The Pathologic Level of Brain TNF is a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain Treatment

Evolving Concept Chronic pain is a serious healthcare dilemma with many treatment options available, such as antidepressants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and anticonvulsants; nevertheless, chronic pain presently is not appropriately managed. A fundamental reason for the lack of effective treatment is that none of these drugs specifically target a process that is essential in eliciting […]

New Evidence Linking IL-17 to Neuropathic Pain

New Evidence Linking IL-17 to Neuropathic Pain

A study published in Molecular Medicine Reports provides further evidence that interleukin (IL)-17 contributes to neuropathic pain through the activation of astrocytes and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Neuropathic pain or chronic pain is a disease syndrome caused by injury to peripheral nerves, the spinal cord or the brain and over 1.5 billion people suffer from […]

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Evolving Concepts Introduction Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the cerebrospinal venous system (CSVS) is necessary to understand the therapeutic potential of perispinal injection for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders [1, 2]. The CSVS is composed of the confluence of the venous systems of the spine and the brain, which together constitute […]