innervation and immune

Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions in Lung Inflammatory Diseases

Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions in Lung Inflammatory Diseases

Overview article Inflammation is the body’s response to insults. During inflammation, various inflammatory cells are activated to release cytokines and mediators and orchestrate progressing inflammation. Clinically, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome involve acute inflammation, whereas asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases represent chronic inflammation. Inflammation is regulated by both the immune and neuroendocrine systems. […]

Aging and Alterated Sympathetic Innervation of Lymphoid Organs in Rodents: Implications

Aging and Alterated Sympathetic Innervation of Lymphoid Organs in Rodents: Implications

A study in Journal of Neuroimmunology suggests that aging is linked to significant alterations in the sympathetic nervous innervation of lymphoid organs that may contribute to aging-related immunosuppression, The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a major branch of the autonomic nervous system and the peripheral stress system. The function of the human SNS is altered […]

Innervation of the Human Thymus and Spleen – an Overview

Innervation of the Human Thymus and Spleen – an Overview

Overview article The immune and nervous systems are anatomically and functionally interconnected, this cross-talk is evidenced by the dense innervation – mainly sympathetic – of the primary (bone marrow and thymus) and secondary (spleen and lymph nodes) lymphoid organs [1, 2]. Primary and secondary lymphoid organs are innervated by the autonomic nervous system resulting in […]

Role of the Vagus Nerve at the Neural-Immune Interface

Role of the Vagus Nerve at the Neural-Immune Interface

Overview article Evidence shows that the central nervous system monitors and modulates the activity of both circulating and tissue immune cells via the neuroendocrine system and autonomic nerves. Furthermore, findings over the last decade have demonstrated that the vagus nerve represents an important bi-directional link between the brain and immune system. Afferent vagal pathways transmit […]

Autonomic Nervous System Control of Leukocyte Distribution: Physiology and Implications for Common Human Diseases

Autonomic Nervous System Control of Leukocyte Distribution: Physiology and Implications for Common Human Diseases

Overview article Leukocytes are key components of the body’s defense system and the major subsets of leukocytes are granulocytes and lymphocytes. We and others have found that the distribution of these subsets are under the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Of note, granulocytes express adrenergic receptors and the number and proportion of granulocytes increase […]

Page 2 of 212