hormone and cytokine

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

Commentary on the study by Di Peng et al., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 11;8(7):e68446 A High Frequency of Circulating Th22 and Th17 Cells in Patients with New Onset Graves’ Disease The many immune mechanisms involved in the onset and development of autoimmune diseases make their pathophysiology heterogeneous and complex. Among them, CD4+ T cells play […]

Adiponectin potentiates Th1 and Th17 immune responses

Adiponectin potentiates Th1 and Th17 immune responses

A new study published in March 2013 issue of the Journal of Immunology identifies a new immunomodulatory effect of adiponectin (APN) – its ability to activate DCs through PLCγ/JNK/NF-κB-signaling pathways and release of proinflammatory cytokines, and to potentiate Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Adiponectin, the most abundant adipokine, is known for its insulin-sensitizing effects, is […]

Thyroxine – an Endogenous Inhibitor of Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Proinflammatory Activity

Thyroxine – an Endogenous Inhibitor of Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Proinflammatory Activity

A new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) suggests that thyroxine (T4) is a strong endogenous inhibitor of the migration inhibitory factor (MIF) pro-inflammatory activities. Importantly, the study also indicates that low T4 and high MIF levels may contribute to the lethal systemic […]

Interferon and the Central Nervous System

Interferon and the Central Nervous System

Overview article Interferons (IFNs) are glycoproteins known as cytokines. These cytokines got their name by Isaacs and Lindenmann [1] after their ability to interfere with viral growth and production. Isaacs and Lindenmann worked at the Medical Research Council Laboratory in Mill Hill, outside London and were the first to publish a paper on these proteins. […]

Estrogens and Dendritic Cells

Estrogens and Dendritic Cells

A study published in the Journal of Immunology demonstrates that estrogens may boost innate immunity by enhancing interferon (IFN)-γ production by CD11c(+) dendritic cells. In humans, the sex differences or the sexual dimorphism in immune defense is a well-known phenomenon. Females have more vigorous cellular and humoral immune responses, and they are more resistant to […]