Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Evolving Concepts Fibromyalgia (FM) is a stress-related disorder that predominately affects women. FM’s outstanding clinical features are chronic widespread pain, paresthesias, allodynia, fatigue, sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment. Other FM associated symptoms relate to irritable bowel, temporo-mandibular dysfunction and interstitial cystitis [1]. FM pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Our group has proposed dysautonomia as an […]

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

Evolving Concepts Stress is everywhere. In evolutionary terms, given the range of stressful environmental challenges faced, the human race could not have evolved without developing successful physiological strategies to cope with and overcome potentially life-threatening challenges on a daily basis. The need for a robust response to an acute stress is well-established. Not only do […]

Neuroendocrine Immunology in 2014 – What Was Hot and Some Conceptual Trends as Presented on BrainImmune

Neuroendocrine Immunology in 2014 – What Was Hot and Some Conceptual Trends as Presented on BrainImmune

Editorial In 2014 we witnessed a rapid growth of the research and studies at the interface and intersection of neurosciences and immunology. This vast interdisciplinary area, often referred to as neuroendocrine immunology or neuroimmunology, also includes stress-immune interactions that may have complex and multifaceted impact on health and disease. Last year also brought some interesting […]

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Evolving Concepts Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed in […]

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

First Evidence That Th22 Cells May Contribute To the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease

Commentary on the study by Di Peng et al., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 11;8(7):e68446 A High Frequency of Circulating Th22 and Th17 Cells in Patients with New Onset Graves’ Disease The many immune mechanisms involved in the onset and development of autoimmune diseases make their pathophysiology heterogeneous and complex. Among them, CD4+ T cells play […]

IL-17: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Several Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

IL-17: A Promising Therapeutic Target in Several Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Commentary on the study by Dominique L. P. Baete and Vijay K. Kuchroo Nat Med. 2013 Jul;19(7):824-5 How Cytokine networks fuel inflammation: Interleukin-17 and a tale of two autoimmune diseases Since the discovery of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, an increasing body of evidence indicates that these cells play a major role in the development […]

A Hierarchical Cytokines Framework Defining Groups of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Learning From Cytokine-Targeted Therapies

A Hierarchical Cytokines Framework Defining Groups of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases: Learning From Cytokine-Targeted Therapies

Commentary on the study by George Schett et al, Nat Med, 2013 Jul;19(7):822-4 How cytokine networks fuel inflammation: Toward a cytokine-based disease taxonomy Extensive genome-wide association and epidemiological studies have shed light on the causes of chronic inflammatory diseases and have confirmed a central role of the immune system and particularly of cytokines [1]. Secreted […]

Oxytocin and Williams Syndrome: Exploring Neurobiology of Social Behavior

Oxytocin and Williams Syndrome: Exploring Neurobiology of Social Behavior

Commentary on the study by Li Dai et al., PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38513 Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior Quote from the original paper’s abstract “Results revealed significantly higher median levels of oxytocin (OT) in Williams syndrome (WS) versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in arginine […]

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Evolving Concepts The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as well […]

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Evolving Concepts Thyroid autoimmunity may manifest clinically as chronic autoimmune or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and its variants (postpartum/sporadic thyroiditis) or as Graves’ disease (GD) and atrophic thyroiditis. These autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) occur as a result of aberrant immune response against thyroid antigens due to breakdown of self-tolerance [1]. Although HT and GD share a […]

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