Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Promotes M2 Polarization of Gut Macrophages: How the Brain–Gut Axis Maintains Tissue Homeostasis

Commentary on the study by Ilana Gabanyi et al, Cell, 2016 164, 378-391 Neuro-Immune Interactions Drive Tissue Programming in Intestinal Macrophages A new study published in the journal Cell indicates that tissue macrophages located in different regions of the gut, exhibit a high degree of specialization and form a cellular network with enteric neurons. The […]

New Evidence that Catecholamines Increase Enterovirus 71 Infectivity

Commentary on the study by Liao YT et al. PLoS One, 10(8):e0135154. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135154. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Enhanced the Infectivity of Enterovirus 71 Outbreaks of Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) are often reported in Asia. EV71 is responsible for syndromes like hand-foot and mouth disease, but is also involved in pulmonary edema (PE) and in neurological […]

New Evidence Suggests Targeting Neuroinflammation May Be One Key to Slowing Alzheimer’s Disease

Commentary on the study by Richard Chou et al. CNS Drugs, 2016 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print] Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Risk of Alzheimer’sDisease: A Nested Case-Control Analysis Compelling new data published online in the journal CNS Drugs documents a substantial and significant decreased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in individuals with […]

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Evolving Concepts Introduction Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the cerebrospinal venous system (CSVS) is necessary to understand the therapeutic potential of perispinal injection for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders [1, 2]. The CSVS is composed of the confluence of the venous systems of the spine and the brain, which together constitute […]

Th17 Cells and Lymphotoxin: Conductors for the Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues and Inflammation Orchestra

Th17 Cells and Lymphotoxin: Conductors for the Tertiary Lymphoid Tissues and Inflammation Orchestra

Commentary on the study by Natalia Pikor et al., Immunity, 2015, 43:1160-73. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.11.010 Integration of Th17- and Lymphotoxin-Derived Signals Initiates Meningeal-Resident Stromal Cell Remodeling to Propagate Neuroinflammation Tertiary lymphoid organs, or more properly, tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs), are accumulations of lymphoid tissues that arise in situations of chronic inflammation. TLTs have been shown to […]

The Innate Immune System Senses Psychological Stress through the ATP/P2X7R-Inflammasome (NLRP3) Cascade

The Innate Immune System Senses Psychological Stress through the ATP/P2X7R-Inflammasome (NLRP3) Cascade

Commentary on the study by Masaaki Iwata et al., Biological Psychiatry, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.11.026. Psychological Stress Activates the Inflammasome via Release of Adenosine Triphosphate and Stimulation of the Purinergic Type 2X7 Receptor Mental disorders are a very common condition. However, the pathophysiology of many of these disorders still remains elusive and more importantly, a very […]

Neural Meshwork Resembling Glass Fishing Float Envelops Antigen Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

Neural Meshwork Resembling Glass Fishing Float Envelops Antigen Presenting Cells in Lymphoid Organs

Commentary on the study by Clemens Wülfing & Hauke S. Günther, Sci Rep, 2015, 5:16866 ‘Dendritic cells and macrophages neurally hard-wired in the lymph node’ The sympathetic neuronal control of immunity in primary and secondary lymphoid organs is exerted through “hard-wired” noradrenergic nerve terminals through the release of norepinephrine that interacts with the immune cells. […]

2015 Bringing Some Major Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

2015 Bringing Some Major Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

Editorial In 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA, launched the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, marking the renaissance in interdisciplinary research, and outlining new perspectives of cutting-edge 21st century work that crosses disciplines. The ‘interdisciplinary research’, as per the Roadmap, was defined as “integrating the analytical strengths of two or more […]

Melatonin May Control the Balance between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

Melatonin May Control the Balance between Pathogenic Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

Commentary on the study by Mauricio Farez et al., 2015, Cell, 162, 1338–1352 Melatonin Contributes to the Seasonality of Multiple Sclerosis Relapses‘ The central master circadian clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The output of this system is synchronized to 24 hours by the light-dark cycle. The SCN regulates rhythms in peripheral cells via […]

The Discovery of the Brain Lymphatic System

The Discovery of the Brain Lymphatic System

Commentary on the study by Antoine Louveau et al., Nature, 2015, 523:337-41 Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels Until recently, the concept that the brain is an ‘immune privileged’ organ was widely accepted. This concept was built from two main morphological concepts, 1) the impenetrability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) […]

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