Evolving Concepts

Featuring novel evolving concepts in the field

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

Evolving Concepts Stress is everywhere. In evolutionary terms, given the range of stressful environmental challenges faced, the human race could not have evolved without developing successful physiological strategies to cope with and overcome potentially life-threatening challenges on a daily basis. The need for a robust response to an acute stress is well-established. Not only do […]

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Evolving Concepts Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed in […]

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Evolving Concepts The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as well […]

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Evolving Concepts Thyroid autoimmunity may manifest clinically as chronic autoimmune or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and its variants (postpartum/sporadic thyroiditis) or as Graves’ disease (GD) and atrophic thyroiditis. These autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) occur as a result of aberrant immune response against thyroid antigens due to breakdown of self-tolerance [1]. Although HT and GD share a […]

Major Depressive Disorder, Immunoregulation, Inflammation and Our Changing Microbial Environment

Major Depressive Disorder, Immunoregulation, Inflammation and Our Changing Microbial Environment

Evolving Concepts Urbanized societies are suffering an epidemic of chronic inflammatory disorders such as allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease. This is at least partly due to elimination from the hygienic modern concrete and tarmac environment of microorganisms and helminths with which man co-evolved. These organisms needed to be tolerated, and so were “entrusted” by […]

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Evolutionary Medicine, Energy Regulation and the Pathogenesis of Systemic Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

Evolving Concepts The general meaning of the systemic response in inflammatory diseases is not well understood. Nor do we know whether the systemic response has any unfavorable role when inflammatory diseases become chronic. We call chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs) “systemic in nature”, but the significance of these systemic signs and symptoms is not known. In […]

Beta Blockers Hold Substantial Potential for Therapeutical Interventions in Cancer

Beta Blockers Hold Substantial Potential for Therapeutical Interventions in Cancer

Evolving Concepts Recently, more than 10 studies [see References 1-11], published in the last 3-4 years indicate the presence of high intratumoral concentrations of catecholamines and that these neurohormonal mediators affect key components of tumor biology such as tumor growth, angiogenesis, and migration or invasion [for details see References 12-13]. These studies suggest that blocking […]

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