Concepts

BrainImmune short concept and opinion articles in the field

Neuroendocrine Immune Implications in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Past and Present Unresolved Issues and Optimising Glucocorticoid Treatment

Neuroendocrine Immune Implications in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica: Past and Present Unresolved Issues and Optimising Glucocorticoid Treatment

Editorial Introduction and background The dramatic effects of cortisone and pituitary adrenocortical hormone therapy on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were discovered almost seven decades ago (1) and even longer for the significant disease amelioration during pregnancy as reported by Hench in 1938 (2). However, major questions persist about the underlying adrenocortical and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) […]

Microglia: gatekeepers for neuropathic pain

Microglia: gatekeepers for neuropathic pain

Evolving Concepts Introduction Where acute pain protects an individual from further damage, chronic pain serves no adaptive purpose. Approximately 1 in 5 people suffer from chronic pain, which exacts a substantial toll on the both the individual and on national economies [1–3]. Chronic pain can arise due to unresolved inflammation (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), damage to […]

The Cross-talk between the Dopaminergic System and Innate Immunity: An Evolving Concept

The Cross-talk between the Dopaminergic System and Innate Immunity: An Evolving Concept

Evolving Concept Dopamine (DA) is a well-known neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). An increasing body of evidence, however, indicates that DA is also an important communication mediator at the neural-immune interface [1-3]. Most research and studies to date have put the emphasis on DA and it’s regulation of adaptive immunity. Comparatively little is […]

An Evolving Concept: The Pathologic Level of Brain TNF is a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain Treatment

An Evolving Concept: The Pathologic Level of Brain TNF is a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain Treatment

Evolving Concept Chronic pain is a serious healthcare dilemma with many treatment options available, such as antidepressants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and anticonvulsants; nevertheless, chronic pain presently is not appropriately managed. A fundamental reason for the lack of effective treatment is that none of these drugs specifically target a process that is essential in eliciting […]

2017 in Review: New Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

2017 in Review: New Advances in Neuroendocrine Immunology

Editorial In 2017, we witnessed further rapid growth in the vast interdisciplinary area of neuroendocrine immunology. It became a tradition to reflect on the new significant developments and conceptual trends in the field that were presented at BrainImmune. We will retrace some of our commentaries, revisiting the studies on BrainImmune we believe are illustrative, stimulating […]

Understanding the Role of Inflammation in Fatigue Requires Multidimensional Assessments

Understanding the Role of Inflammation in Fatigue Requires Multidimensional Assessments

Evolving concepts Introduction “I am tired”. What does this sentence actually imply? In a recent review published in Frontiers in Immunology [1], we suggest that the different dimensions of fatigue (Figure 1) should be specifically investigated, in subjective as well as objective ways. This is especially important if we are to comprehend the role of […]

β2-Adrenergic Agonists for Parkinson’s Disease: Repurposing Drugs at the Crossroad of the Brain and the Immune System

β2-Adrenergic Agonists for Parkinson’s Disease: Repurposing Drugs at the Crossroad of the Brain and the Immune System

Commentary On the study by Mittal S, Science, 2017; 357(6354):891-898. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3934 β2-Adrenoreceptor is a regulator of the α-synuclein gene driving risk of Parkinson’s disease Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects 0.1-0.2% of the general population with increasing prevalence with age, and up to 1% in individuals above 60 years of age, resulting in an estimated 7 […]

The selfishness of the brain and immune systems provoke energy deficiency in aging and chronic inflammation

The selfishness of the brain and immune systems provoke energy deficiency in aging and chronic inflammation

Evolving Concepts “I feel exhausted with mental stress and with systemic inflammation, but why?” In recent publications [1-5], in highly active chronic inflammatory diseases, I demonstrated how energy shortage due to an active and selfish immune system can stimulate a plethora of common signs and symptoms listed here (list is not complete): daytime fatigue and […]

Brain Superautoantigens: Connections between Immune and Neural Repertoires

Brain Superautoantigens: Connections between Immune and Neural Repertoires

Opinion Article Introduction Although human cells express a quasi-infinite number of potential autoantigens, only a limited range of the human “self” antigen library is actually targeted by pathological autoimmunity. Accordingly, the clinical expression of human autoimmunity is essentially restricted to relatively few stereotyped disorders including psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, […]

Neuroendocrine-Immunology Progress and Development Stories: 2016 in Review

Neuroendocrine-Immunology Progress and Development Stories: 2016 in Review

Editorial Neuroendocrine-immunology has achieved substantial progress and growth over the last year. As the BrainImmune mission is to promote the advancement of this research field, it is becoming a tradition to recapitulate the latest developments in this relatively new interdisciplinary area that bridges neurosciences and immunology. Note that this is not a complete list, but […]

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