Evolving Concepts

Featuring novel evolving concepts in the field

The selfishness of the brain and immune systems provoke energy deficiency in aging and chronic inflammation

The selfishness of the brain and immune systems provoke energy deficiency in aging and chronic inflammation

Evolving Concepts “I feel exhausted with mental stress and with systemic inflammation, but why?” In recent publications [1-5], in highly active chronic inflammatory diseases, I demonstrated how energy shortage due to an active and selfish immune system can stimulate a plethora of common signs and symptoms listed here (list is not complete): daytime fatigue and […]

Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells and Glucocorticoid Resistance: Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Their Treatment

Pro-Inflammatory Th17 Cells and Glucocorticoid Resistance: Implications for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Their Treatment

Evolving Concepts Summary Th17 cells have heterogeneous phenotypes and functions, and can have pro- or anti-inflammatory activities. Pathogenic Th17 cells have been associated to several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Besides IL-17A and IL-17F, they also produce GM-CSF and IFN-γ, and express high levels of IL-23R. These cells are refractory to glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated T cell suppression, […]

Beta-Adrenoceptors and Tumor Development: Novel Concepts and Clinical Implications

Beta-Adrenoceptors and Tumor Development: Novel Concepts and Clinical Implications

Evolving Concepts Over the last 3 decades, an increasing body of evidence suggests that catecholamine-dependent signalling may represent a major link between chronic stress and tumor progression. Studies addressing the relationship between stress-activated pathways and cancer progression suggest that stress-induced production of adrenaline and noradrenaline, besides affecting the anti-tumor immune response also displays direct tumor-promoting […]

The Nervous System’s Relationship to Immune Events: ‘Broadly Based but Cell-Faced’ – ‘wAPC’ as Hardwired Antigen Presenting Cells

The Nervous System’s Relationship to Immune Events: ‘Broadly Based but Cell-Faced’ – ‘wAPC’ as Hardwired Antigen Presenting Cells

Evolving Concepts In many textbooks, predominantly targeting medical students, i.e. anatomy, histology and physiology, or in more specialized areas of interest such as immunology or neurobiology, the innervation of immune organs is still something of a mystery as concerns the peripheral nervous system. One reason may be that the fields of immunology and neurobiology have […]

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Perispinal Delivery of CNS Drugs: From Corning to Perispinal Etanercept

Evolving Concepts Introduction Familiarity with the anatomy and physiology of the cerebrospinal venous system (CSVS) is necessary to understand the therapeutic potential of perispinal injection for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders [1, 2]. The CSVS is composed of the confluence of the venous systems of the spine and the brain, which together constitute […]

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Sympathetic Dysautonomia in Fibromyalgia: Brief Overview

Evolving Concepts Fibromyalgia (FM) is a stress-related disorder that predominately affects women. FM’s outstanding clinical features are chronic widespread pain, paresthesias, allodynia, fatigue, sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment. Other FM associated symptoms relate to irritable bowel, temporo-mandibular dysfunction and interstitial cystitis [1]. FM pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Our group has proposed dysautonomia as an […]

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

The Power of Positive Stress and a Research Roadmap

Evolving Concepts Stress is everywhere. In evolutionary terms, given the range of stressful environmental challenges faced, the human race could not have evolved without developing successful physiological strategies to cope with and overcome potentially life-threatening challenges on a daily basis. The need for a robust response to an acute stress is well-established. Not only do […]

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Insulin Resistance: An Adaptive Program of the Selfish Brain and Immune System

Evolving Concepts Over the last century insulin resistance has been found in many physiological and disease states. A few examples are diabetes mellitus, obesity, infection, sepsis, different types of arthritis (including rheumatoid arthritis), systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, trauma, painful states such as postoperative pain and migraine, schizophrenia, major depression, and mental stress (reviewed in […]

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Rejecting Allergens: The Avoidance Behavior

Evolving Concepts The immune system can recognize, assimilate or reject self and non-self components. Indeed, immunological activities vary in a spectrum that goes from total tolerance (assimilation of self and non-self) to intolerance (rejection of self and non-self). Immunologists are aware of the power of immunologic rejection of histo-incompatible transplanted organs or tissues as well […]

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Stress-Induced Th2 Shift & Thyroid Autoimmunity: Unifying Hypothesis

Evolving Concepts Thyroid autoimmunity may manifest clinically as chronic autoimmune or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and its variants (postpartum/sporadic thyroiditis) or as Graves’ disease (GD) and atrophic thyroiditis. These autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) occur as a result of aberrant immune response against thyroid antigens due to breakdown of self-tolerance [1]. Although HT and GD share a […]

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